Fabric / Types of Sewing Fabrics / Materials and Sewing Fabrics


Materials, fabrics, textile fabric ... is what is processed on sewing machines, it is a fairly extensive "matter" and it would take a long time to explain and explain all this at least partially. We will stick to some of the "basic" fabrics that are used the most.
The division of fabrics should be done right at the beginning, and the "rough" division would be into fabrics made of natural and artificial fibers. Fiber is the basis of every fabric, with its appearance, properties, way of weaving threads, fibers give the fabric its final look as well as properties...

(resistance, strength, maintenance..etc)
Natural fibers are therefore found in nature and artificial ones are made by chemical processes of various polymers or are synthesized (synthetics). Any fiber in question, artificial or natural, it must still have some of its basic characteristics, such as: fineness, strength, tensile strength, elasticity, resistance to chemical compounds during maintenance, the ability to absorb liquids ... etc.


What are the most commonly used natural fibers in the textile industry?
The most famous and most used are: cotton, wool, silk, jute, linen, hemp ... etc.
COTTON is convincing in the first position; it is a plant that thrives in the tropics and subtropics, but is also grown well outside this "belt". The basic conditions for growing cotton are heat, sun, humidity. Its flowers are light yellow. Cotton seeds are overgrown with fine fibers 20-35 mm long, depending on the quality. It is these fibers that are in high demand.


on the world market, practically the world's most important fibrous raw material.
The world's major cotton producers are: Pakistan, Turkey, China, India, USA, Greece, Uzbekistan ....
WOOL is a natural fiber and there is no need to write anything special about it, it is very warm, dries relatively quickly, wool as a material is very elastic. Woolen fabrics do not wrinkling, they can be dyed very well. The quality of wool depends on the type of animal, fineness, method of processing.
The largest wool producers are: Australia, America, Spain, Argentina.


SILK, on the other hand, is special in everything, it used to be a privileged material
rich people, historical traces of silk production lead us to China where the production of 3,000 years before new era. Silk arrived in Europe much later. Silk is produced by "silkworm" larvae, which is actually a type of butterfly. Butterfly larvae feed exclusively on mulberry leaves, and in the final stage, the caterpillar is wrapped in threads that it produces itself, which is the famous silk.
The silkworm cocoons are then soaked in boiling water and the silk threads are removed from the cocoons with a special technique.
Then it is further processed, spun ... the obtained silk thread is processed by weaving into a fine silk fabric. In terms of production and quality of silk, China ranks first. Expensive garments are made of silk, silk is characterized by strength, high gloss, fineness, elasticity ... a beautiful material but also demanding to work with.


JUTA is an annual plant, it grows in the tropics, its processing produces coarse fiber that does not have a special role in the manufacture of clothing.
LAN's, flax fiber production also dates back to the distant past. It is a plant that contains fibers suitable for processing in its bark. Flax fibers are quite strong and today the technology of production of extremely high quality material has been perfected, which has a wide application.
Man-made fibers:
These are fibers based on cellulose (artificial silk), acetate, synthetics, synthetic polymers, acrylic, polyamide, polyester. Artificial fiber materials are widely used in the textile industry as well.


The following are the names and a brief description of some of the known materials and fabrics:
BATIST - very light translucent cotton fabric, soft to the touch. It is used for making underwear, women's blouses, etc.
CHIFFON-BATIST: Fine white linen, thick and high gloss.
BROKET - heavy, very decorative silk fabric.,
BOUCLE - fabric for women's coats and costumes. The front is intertwined and uneven and the back of the fabric is smooth.
JERSAY - a material of woolen yarn or a mixture of cellulose fibers.
FLANEL - cotton fabric in linen embroidery, very nice and warm material.
FROTTE - a well-known cotton fabric that characterizes surfaces, absorbs water well, so it is mostly used for making towels.
FULANI - soft and thick fabric made of natural silk or chemical fibers.
TWEED - hand-woven plaid or striped fabrics originally made in Scotland.
CASHMERE - thick, light and comfortable to wear fabric, smooth surface made of cashmere goat wool. Highly valued material.
COOPER- strong cotton material
CROMBIE - heavier material for sewing coats
LYCRA -: synthetic, very elastic fiber.
PANAMA - a material with double warp and weft threads, so the effect on the surface of the fabric is square.
SATTEN - stronger silk fabric
TAFT -silk fabric, thick and quite strong, is made of natural silk or with the addition of chemical fiber.
TWEED - woolen fabric for costumes, jackets and coats
SCUBA - fabric is a type of double knit made from polyester and spandex, with a very fine gauge thread, and smooth texture.  It’s a little springy, very smooth and has a nice drape to it.
DENIM - is a sturdy cotton warp-faced[1] textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing that distinguishes it from cotton duck. While a denim predecessor known as dungaree has been produced in India for hundreds of years, denim itself was first produced in the French city of Nîmes under the name sergé de Nîmes...etc etc.
In addition to the above, there are also materials for work suits, upholstery (furniture fabric, fabric, jacquard, alcantara ...), rubberized materials, fabric and fabrics for health care institutions ...
You can also list some of your favorite material and what you use it for the most. The topic is, as I said, extensive and will be finalized in the coming period...

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